Saturday, February 22, 2020

A Brief History of Globalization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

A Brief History of Globalization - Essay Example This research will begin with the definition of globalization as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction, and power. Globalisation is perhaps the most overused and least understood word, and one can easily see that the meaning and scope of the word has transformed and evolved dramatically over the past few years. The controversy associated with it proves how complicated scholars on both sides have made it. Under this backdrop, here is someone with a rational approach who seeks to clarify the concepts. Alex MacGillivray’s views are wry and balanced, replete with historic anecdotes and high-quality analysis of each aspect and implication of globalization. He litters his writing with speckles of benign humor when referring to the steady growth in the number of countries over the last few decades accord ing to membership of the UN, recognition by FIFA or entries in the CIA’s World Fact Book. His observations are woven logically into the fabric of first-rate primary data analysis. For instance, a new data set showing that much of the reputed growth of an international trade over the past two decades arise from regional (intra trading block), rather than a truly international movement of goods and services. This idea contrasts what organizations like WTO and World Bank acclaim as the benefits of globalization.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Is Money Neutral Contrast the view regarding the neutrality of money Essay

Is Money Neutral Contrast the view regarding the neutrality of money between Real Business Cycle theory and New Keynesian Theor - Essay Example This is an important question to ask, as it affects the way, the government chooses to govern the economy and the ways to control it. The two schools of thought, the New Keynesian Theory and the Real Business Cycle Theory, debate the answer to this question (Mankiw, pp. 181-220, 2003). Both of these theories have a unique perspective to offer on the answer, and since each raises valid arguments, neither has yet been discredited for the other. The theory of money neutrality maintains that the effect of money does not affect real, inflation-adjusted factors like employment; real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ‘real’ consumption (real because they have are all adjusted for inflation). This is because this theory considers the force of money as an inflationary one, with no large implications for the economy in terms of the macroeconomic factors. However, the theory does acknowledge the impact money has on nominal variables, such as price and wages, and even exchange rate o f the country’s currency (Wickens, pp. 199, 2009). These factors bound to gain influence from the money rate of interest, as they have a direct link to money and its circulation in the economy. The two schools of thought that debates on the neutrality of money have opposite views about how far-reaching the effect of money can be in an economy. The classical model states that money is neutral in both the short run as well as the long run. This means that this model considers money to be a neutral force, one that does not affect macro factors such as GDP or employment in the economy. Whereas, the Keynesian school of thought states that a force as strong as money does have its impact on the economy in the end. It believes that monetary policy does have a strong impact on the real economy, if one waits enough time before observing the changes. Each of these schools believes that this effect is visible within the short run for a short period of time, which is a factor on which the y both see eye to eye, but for different reasons. For the long term however, they both offer opposing views (Wickens, pp. 199, 2009). The classical model presents the view that monetary policy cannot affect the real economy and its macro factors, neither in the short run, nor in the long-run (Gali, pp 50-79, 2008). It states that nominal shocks, which are changes in the money supply and money demand, do not have any effect on the business cycle. This monetary policy is one of the tools that a government uses to control the economy, which it does by manipulating the money supply and circulation. According to the theory, when ‘money supply’ changes, it affects price proportionately. However, there is no effect on the real variables in the economy, such as the real interest rate or the unemployment level in the economy. As mentioned above, the classical school does also believe that the money supply affects the real factors for a short period. However, it believes that ver y soon, the price level adjusts to this change in money supply, thus making it ineffective to any real factors in the economy. This is apparent in the diagram below, which shows how the equilibrium reverts to normal after a temporary price shock (Abel and Bernanke, pp. 2005). In other words, it believes that the non-neutrality of money is short-lived, persisting over a period of insignificant length. Thus,

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Conceptions of crime Essay Example for Free

Conceptions of crime Essay Conceptions of crime are distorted by exposure to media coverage. Discuss. This cours from coursework. inf coga ga . r se . ga . ga . w or. ga . . ga . k inga foga . ga . ! The media constitutes a major part of modern society and plays a large role in our lives. It is the prime source of information and entertainment, and moreover acts as a strong influence on public belief and opinion. The media is highly influential in coae ae . r se . ae . ae . w or. ae . . ae . k inae foae . ae . . shaping our views upon the world in which we live. When it comes to crime, coae ae .r se . ae . ae . w or. ae . . ae . k inae foae . ae . . however, do the reports shown by the media present an accurate picture of the true This cours from coursework. inf events? The more horrific the report, the more likely it is to capture the attention of the public, which obviously secures plenty of profit for media barons. Is our increasing reliance on an institution that relies on sensationalism to create profit unwise, as this could well mean that the facts they report lack truth? The media reinforces social myths by selective reporting, and thus presents a distorted view ofreality. This could be leading to an increasingly misconstrued public view of certain crimes. The media is a very powerful influence on the way in which we behave and how we view the world, therefore it is important that it shows a realistic picture of what is taking place in our society, otherwise we will gain a false perception of aspects such as crime. Is the media really portraying crime as it truly is, or is it selectively reporting the most colourful events in order to secure audiences and therefore profit? It is important to understand that there are many crimes that are completely ignored by the media, as they are not seen as ? newsworthy?. Usually only those that will capture public attention are mentioned. This means that the crimes that fill our screens and pages are usually violent or shocking in nature. From a functionalist perspective this can serve a positive function, as the deviant behaviour makes ordinary people feel safe in the knowledge that they are morally better than the criminal, and reporting of crimes and subsequent punishments can also serve as a deterrent to others and a good method of reinforcing the social order. However, there is also a certain degree of bias present in all reporting that stems from the integrated norms and moral background of the journalist involved. It is almost impossible to be completely objective when reporting, and most journalists will slant their stories to appeal to the widest possible audience. This is theorized in the hegemonic model, and works on the basis that the majority of journalists are likely to be white, male and middle-class and will therefore bring with them to their stories their own similar set of norms and values, be this unconsciously or otherwise. The editors will also carry out a selection process on the stories before they hit the public view; therefore it is highly unlikely that any crime report reaches the news in an unbiased state.? Journalists also tend to use a set of stereotypes, which serve to easily identify ? types? of people and reduce complexities of character to a series of ? bad guys? and ? good guys?. These can lead the public to make quick judgments, which may not be based on true fact.? The media? s presentation of stereotypical images can change the public opinion on certain groups in society, and may create a false picture of them that may be harmful. The groups most often portrayed as criminal are the less privileged and minority groups such as those from ethnic minorities. Because our lives are so deeply influenced by the media we begin to see the portrayal of these groups as a reality, and this may cause crimes committed by other groups or individuals (such as corporate crime in the middle class) to be overlooked or seen as less serious.? In addition, the police can make use of the media to help maintain social order by choosing what to tell reporters, as many news stories use police accounts as a major source for their information. A good example of the media distorting aspects of crime is shown with the reporting of women involved in criminal activity. The common media portrayal of women is more passive and much less inclined to commit crime, and when they do it is seen as less violent or shocking in nature, or as influenced by a stronger male personality, for example Myra Hindley was commonly said to have been under the influence of Ian Brady when the horrific Moors murders were committed. Media coverage usually concentrates on the most violent and shocking aspects of crime. This can often be far from the truth, and puts the public in fear when in reality there is a tiny chance of them falling victim. Listening to the news, it appears that the country is riddled with serial killers and rapists however official crime statistics would show that this is not the case. Reporting like this can lead to mass panic and fear across the country, and this aspect was investigated further by Stanley Cohen in his book ? Folk Devils and Moral Panics? where he studied the 1960s mods and rockers conflicts. The media? s handling of the fights between the rivals groups made it sound as if Brighton was full of riots and was a very dangerous place, when in reality this was a false picture of events. However, these stories grabbed the headlines, and as a result appealed to a large audience and gained lots of attention with the public. At the moment there is lots of media coverage about murders in Cornwall, and about the girl who was kidnapped and murdered on Dartmoor. The way these are reported makes people fearful that there is a serial killer on the loose, when in reality there is probably little chance of this happening to them and they should be more concerned with the more common but less ? colourful? crimes that threaten society, most of which would be much more obvious if the public were able to look at official crime statistics. This viewpoint fits in well with the idea of the media as a manipulative entity that is ideologically biased and therefore bases its selection of news on this fundamental bias. This manipulation theory is Marxist in origin and works on the idea that the public are passive and absorb the information that the media presents them with without question, and that the media consist of the ruling class who use media channels to perpetuate their views and opinions in society. Official statistics paint an interesting picture of the true nature of crime levels in society. It is a fact that crime rates have actually remained stable over the last year, after experiencing a period of decline. This challenges the constant media message that crime is everywhere and on the increase. When people were interviewed about crime rates many of them believed that crime was well on the increase, as result of a ? heightened degree of press coverage which particularly focused on a claimed rise in crime.? (Jon Simmons in the Home Office Report 2002).? It is a well-known fact that the media tend to emphasise aspects and types of crime that are violent or shocking, such as murder and rape, which affects the general population by creating huge worry about occurrences of violent crime when it is a statistical fact that one is over four times more likely to fall victim to burglary. Another form of media that can, and often does, present distorted representations of crime are television shows such as The Bill, Merseybeat or reality shows such as Crimewatch. For example Crimewatch focuses on catching criminals who have carried out violent crime and places little or no emphasis on occurrences of burglary or more ? normal? crimes, even though this type of crime is much more frequent. The Bill shows many incidents of violent crime, however also tends to show other less ? newsworthy? forms of crime such as theft which is a more realistic approach. coac ac . r se . ac . ac . w or. ac . . ac .k inac foac . ac . . There are a number of media influence models that attempt to explain the extent and nature of media influence. The manipulation theory presented earlier is one of these theories; however there are others that attempt to explain the media? s effect on society in different ways. The pluralist model argues that the public are not passive receptors but active participants with the ability to choose and form their own opinions from the vast variety of information presented by the media, whether about crime or about other social issues. The media only serve to reinforce the existing values that people possess. Tversky and Kahneman suggest that the easier it is to recall or imagine an event, the more likely we are to see it as risky or as frequent in occurrence (Tversky and Kahneman cit. 1994: 303). Therefore if this is correct then constant media coverage of violent crimes could lead us to believe that such crimes are the ones most likely to affect us. Mass media reporting can also serve as a substitute for direct experience, however research into this supports the pluralist model by showing that people are usually active consumers and interpreters rather than passive recipients. The issue at hand seems to be the growing difference between the way the public perceive crime and the reality as shown by official statistics. For some reason, society has a far greater fear of murder and other violent crime than is justified by the actual number of occurrence, when in reality there is far greater likelihood of incidences of burglary or car crime. So where do these fears stem from? The answer appears to be that they come from the way in which the media report crimes and how they select the most newsworthy aspects so that more papers will get sold and so viewing figures will increase. In conclusion it is an unavoidable fact that our society is so immersed in the media that its influence is hard to get away from. To a large extent, media does form our social world, however it is also true that people are active interpreters of information, and are able to utilize their own opinions on events and stories shown by the media. We are only taking in what the media offer to us not the real truth about what is happening. It is very easy for our conceptions of crime to be distorted by the way that the media portray it, as the only information we are receiving on the events is that which comes from the media. However if people really are actively interpreting and thinking about the true nature of crime levels, while attempting to broaden their horizons of information, then they will be more aware of the reality of the situation and our conceptions will be far less influenced by media constructed images and opinions. Bibliography Maguire, M, R. Reiner and R. Morgan. 2002 The Oxford Handbook Of Criminology New York: Oxford University Press Haralambos, M. 2000? Themes and Perspectives in Sociology? 4th edition Cohen, S and Young, J. 1973? The Manufacture Of News: Deviance, Social Problems and the Mass Media, London: Constable and Co Ltd.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Type 1 diabetes :: essays research papers

Squats Versus Lunge   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The purpose of my project grade sheet is to get a better understanding of the movement I chose which was squats versus lunges. The body of my research paper will give the reader a better understanding of the following for my specific movement. Anatomy: The origin and insertions that are involved include the Glutes- gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, Hamstrings- lliotibial band, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor magnus, gracilis, semimembranosus. Calves- Gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus brevis, flexor hallucis longus. Thighs- Pectineus, sartorius, adductor longus, tensor fasciae latae, gracilis, quadriceps, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis. These muscles originate just beneath the gluteus maximus on the pelvic bone and attach on the tibia. The primary functions are knee flexions which involve bringing the heel towards the gluteus maximus and hip extensions moving the leg to the rear end. Squats and lunges are a simple but very effective exercise for the lower bodies specifically the legs. It helps with balance and coordination which comes very useful for any sporting events as well as muscle development. The hamstrings, gluteus, and quadriceps muscles can be worked by using dumbb ells, barbells or just by simply using your own body weight, which we refer to as calisthenics. The most important point to remember about calisthenics is that if your muscles do not receive more stress than what they are used to, you are wasting your time. The advantages of using dumbbells and barbells are more effective in developing the smaller synergistic (helping) muscles and stabilizer muscles. Synergism is the combined effects of two or more parts of forces or agents which is greater than the sum of individual effects. The bone articulations that are involved include the pelvic bone, tibia bone and femur. The soft tissue ligaments (connects bone to bone) and tendons (connects muscle to bone) that are involved are the anterior and posterior cruciates, patella tendon connects quadriceps muscles to patella, and it also involves the shins. Kinetics: Sir Isaac Newton a scientist during the 1600’s, made observations about the world surrounding him. The observations he came up with and out of those he developed the three laws of motion. Newton’s laws of motion explain rest, constant motion, and acceleration motion; He described how balance and unbalanced forces act to cause the states of motions. In other words they are fundamental to understanding human movement. The laws that account for my movements are the law of inertia, which is the first law, it states â€Å"a body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by a force; a body at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by a force†.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Early to Bed

Early to Bed April 17th 2013 Section 1 It’s not unusual you can hear the floorboards creak, the toilet flush, and the sound of the first one shoe drop to the floor from your neighbor at 1 a. m. in your apartment, and you may be one of them. Nowadays many people stay up late, especially for those people who have variable sleep schedules, such as university students. University students usually change their sleep schedules due to studying, working for a living, or working for social networking (e. g. alcohol and caffeine consumption). Staying up late usually leads to insufficient sleep, and this situation is prevalent among university students. According to a survey done by Leon C. Lack Ph. D. in the journal â€Å"Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students†, â€Å"A sample of 211 university first-year psychology students†¦ accounted for about 50% of the total enrollment in the course†¦ about 50% of the sample complained of insufficient sleep and estima ted needing about half an hour more sleep on the average to feel rested. (Lakc, 2010) Moreover, the author also realized the linkage between staying up late and the insufficient sleep, â€Å"Delayed sleep pattern presumably arises from a delay in their endogenous biological rhythms that creates difficulty in falling asleep early enough to get sufficient sleep before necessary weekday morning awakening. † (Lakc, 2010) Both delayed sleep and insufficient sleep can cause serious healthy issues, and also affect one’s working productivity. Based on the Journal named â€Å"Pathways to adolescent health sleep regulation and behavior† by Ronald E Dahl, M. D. â€Å"There is mounting evidence that sleep deprivation has its greatest negative effects on the control of behavior, emotion, and attention†¦ the most obvious direct health consequences of insufficient sleep are high-risk behaviors associated with substance abuse and automobile accidents. † (Dahl, 2002) Delayed sleep may harass one’s circadian rhythm, and further lead to delayed sleep phase disorder. Insufficient sleep may cause emotional fluctuation, which further affect your social networking relationships since being tired usually means being grumpy. Students usually think that they are more productive at night, owever the truth is opposite. Humans aren’t used to saying up late, in the optimal situation, based on an article from CNN Health, â€Å"we rise in the morning and after about 16 hours of wakefulness we are sleepy and we go to bed and sleep for eight hours† (Shives, 2010) Staying up simply means we use our brains so intensively even when our brains are ready for a rest. During the weekdays, delayed sleep and insufficient sleep make us feel tired in the daytime, and it is difficult for students to be concentrated in classes, then further affect students’ academic performances.The benefits of sleeping early are obvious. Going to bed early helps us maintain the order of circadian rhythm and ensures the quality of sleep at night. Based on Dahl’s journal, â€Å"Sleep appears to be particularly important during periods of brain maturation. † (Dahl, 2002) Sleeping is the process of restoring our brain, we would be more productive, concentrated, and confident in our work during daytime. Sleeping early means we can have more time in the morning. Changing and maintain sleep schedule is a continuous process. It is impossible to accomplish all the changes overnight.In order to successfully switch sleep schedule to optimal situation, we should be aware the healthy issues derived from delayed sleep, identify a target behavior with a personal research, set achievable and incremental goals as time goes by, and finally reward your success. Section 2 As a junior-year university student at business school, both my academic and personal life have been busy, being productive is one of the major factors that let me survive. I o ften stayed up late to get work done since I thought sacrificing sleep created more time for work, and then I could keep abreast of my schedule.However, things just went contrary to my wishes. First of all, staying up shorted my sleep time, which led to insufficient sleep time. Then I had to use coffee to fight for fatigue and tiredness, but my productivity still kept low during classes. In order to catch up what I left during the classes, I had to spend more time to study outside. After I finished all my homework, it was usually around 1 a. m. , but the drag effect of caffeine kept me waking up at that time. My daily life was a vicious spiral and I found my body reactions slowed down physically and mentally, my motion was under the weather and even affected the relationship with my girlfriend. Therefore, the main reason I’ve chosen to sleep early is increasing my productivity and getting rid of fatigue and tiredness without caffeine. In order to optimize my sleep schedule, I organized a three-stage target schedule: The first stage (3/30 to 4/15), I went to bed at 12:00 a. m. and woke up as usual; the second stage (4/15 to 4/30), I went to bed at 12:00 a. m. and woke up half an hour early as usual; the third stage (After 4/30), I went to bed at 11:00 p. m. and woke up one hour early.Half a month has passed, even though I am in the second stage, but I do have some progresses that benefit for my daily life. Setting a fixed time to go to bed forces me to manage my time more effectively. Most importantly, sleeping early gives me more energy in daytime, and now I can keep my brain working without caffeine even I wake up half an hour early than before. My productivity is improving, and the biggest change is I can keep myself on the same page with professor in lectures simply because I have enough energy to think more and interact mentally.Nevertheless, things won’t change overnight, and I do encounter some difficulties during my behavior changing. So f ar, the biggest challenge has been my habit of staying up in my sub-consciousness. During weekdays, as long as my schedule gets crowded, I will have the intent to delay sleep time out of habit even those tasks are not urgent; in weekends, parties are attractive for me and most of them last until late night. Be honest, I did not meet my short-term goal three times so far. Reaching my ultimate goal is not easy, and I am implementing some strategies hopefully to keep myself on the right track.First of all, I believe separating my plan into three short-term stages makes my plan as a continuous improvement that is easier to accomplish and encourages me to proceed; second, finding a change agent is important. My girlfriend is my change agent, and she has helped me to act with the criteria I set closely. One advantage of choosing my girlfriend as the agent is I have to listen to her order because I do not want to piss her off. Even though I’ve not reached my ultimate goal yet, some potential long-term benefits can be observed.First and foremost, I will be more productive in my academic performance. Sleeping early provides my body an optimal circadian rhythm which gives me a high quality and sufficient sleep at night. Consequently, I will have abundant of energy to handle my busy university life. Moreover, sufficient energy will enable me to balance my academic life and personal life more reasonably, and then I will have a great passion to maintain my private relationship with my girlfriend and my social networking.Last but not least, sufficient sleep will give me a healthy life that will be the upmost foundation for my body health in my future life. Section 3 By reviewing my journal entries for the past half a month, in sum, I did follow my stage short-term target in weekdays. Meeting the short-term target in each stage is easier in weekdays because my class schedule is relatively fixed. Nevertheless, meeting the target in weekends has been the difficult part. As I mentioned in the last section, attending parties held in weekends last late made me out of my planned track.Moreover, since I was used to stay up late for a long time, sometimes I still consider staying up is a way to relax myself. As for the change of emotional process, at the very beginning, I even felt anxious when I went to bed without completing my tasks as usual, and this emotion hindered me to fall asleep. Fortunately, as I reorganized my tasks priority corresponding to my early to bed plan, and that anxious emotion has no longer been a problem. Below is a snapshot of my tracking chart.Cells with yellow filling indicate weekend days, and times in red font indicate failing fulfillments. Works Cited Lakc, L. C. (2010). Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students. Journal of American College Health , 105. Dahl, R. E. (2002). Pathways to adolescent health sleep regulation and behavior. Journal of Adolescent Hleath , 10-11. Shives, L. (2010, 11 30). Get Some Sleep: A re you a night owl? Here's why. Retrieved 4 17, 2013, from CNN Health: http://thechart. blogs. cnn. com/2010/11/30/get-some-sleep-night-owl-its-a-real-condition/

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Overpopulation in India - 1001 Words

Population Explosion in India The Factors and Effects of Population Explosion in India, and Steps to Control Population There are many factors contributing in the population explosion in India, and the increased population has led to many others consequences. Anyhow, steps are taken by the government of India to control this predicament. First and foremost, the high birth rate in India is the main root of the overpopulation. The high fertility rate is due to the impecunious of the country. To counter this, the nations give birth to more children, hoping that there will be more income resources. Besides, the people count upon that the survivability of their children is low and thus they keep producing more children. Moreover, most of†¦show more content†¦Not only that, the national heritage and the ancestral monuments will be damaged by the air pollution. Besides, carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons increase as the population grows and result in air pollution and depletion of ozone layer. Eventually, temperature of earth will rise and the ultraviolet radiation of the sun will be able to pen etrate over the ozone layer. Global warming occurs as greenhouse gases trap the heat in the earth’s atmosphere. High temperature will hamper the harvest of crops and further deteriorate the economy in India. Additionally, the climatic changes will lead to increase of tropical disturbances. People themselves will be in danger as well as the pollution goes critical. The next pollution will be water pollution. This pollution comes from factories, automobiles’’ exhausts and mines, which dump sewage directly into the water. Moreover, as an Agrarian country, the usage of pesticides for agriculture in India calls for water pollution too. Excessive usage of organic matter by farmers will also lead to the same consequent. As mentioned, deforestation will occur as population increase and the forests are stripped, soil erosion will happen and further cause sediments in water. Furthermore, people in India bathe in river for spiritual rejuvenate. However, as they warding off their sins in water, body wastes are excreted into the river as well, leading to river pollution. ReligiousShow MoreRelatedThe Overpopulation Problem in India509 Words   |  2 Pagesis overpopulation, this has been going on in tons of countries including India, the worst of them all. It has been happening in India for many years and if it continues to go up at this rate it will become a very bad situation for everyone living there and will become a world problem. It is one of the biggest problems that needs to be stopped for the sake of so many lives. Many attempts have been tried, but none of them successful enough. There is also a lot of history behind overpopulation. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Analysis Of The Article Bad Food Subsidies It, And...

In the essay by Mark Bittman â€Å"Bad Food? Tax it, and Subsidize Vegetables Instead,† Bittman offers an idea on how to change the Standard American Diet: making healthy food cheaper and fast, processed food more expensive. Calculating the tax to increase one penny would make a difference in the price and the decision of the people as to whether or not the people will purchase processed foods. With taxes on carbonated drinks and processed foods, profits from the proposal should increase due to the amount of money it would bring into the government and the benefits of a healthier American. Bittman’s results remove chronic health diseases that reinvent the way we eat. In â€Å"Nickle and Dimed on Not Getting by in America,† Barbara Ehrenreich†¦show more content†¦Also pointing out, â€Å"But since poor people suffer disproportionately from the cost of high-quality, fresh foods, subsidizing those foods would be particularly beneficial to them† (Bit tman 295), Bittman understands that most of the jobs that are not getting enough money for their work are the physical, blue collar jobs. Because these jobs are physically demanding, they need as much energy as their job demands. Since energy comes from the food that we consume, Bittman finds it important to consume the better, healthier food. Similar to Bittman, Ehrenreich believes that money is a big issue when it comes to deciding what kind of food to buy. As Ehrenreich concludes her month of working on the minimum salary, she realizes that she ends up with less money than what she starts with. Ehrenreich explains: There are no secret economies that nourish the poor; on the contrary, there is a host of special costs. If you can’t put up the two months’ rent you need to secure an apartment, you end up paying through the nose for a room by the week. If you only have a room, with a hot plate at best, you can’t save by cooking up huge lentil stews that can be frozen for the week ahead. You eat fast food, of the hot dogs and Styrofoam cups of soup that can be microwaved in a convenience store (Ehrenreich 253). Showing her understanding of the true life of a low-wage worker, she starts to emphasize. This low-wage cycle will continue. 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